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Table of Contents




Washington, D.C. 20549










For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022


Commission File Number 0-16587


Summit Financial Group, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)



West Virginia

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)  


(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)


300 N. Main Street

Moorefield, West Virginia 

(Address of principal executive offices)  


(Zip Code)



(304) 530-1000

(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:


Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered



NASDAQ Global Select Market


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes ☐  No


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

Yes ☐  No


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes ☑  No ☐



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes ☑ No ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company.  See definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.



Large accelerated filer ☐


Accelerated Filer


Non-accelerated filer ☐


Smaller reporting company

  Emerging growth company   


If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation of its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.                                    


If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.             ☐


Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).  ☐


Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes  No ☑


The aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant at June 30, 2022 was approximately $305,343,000.  Registrant has assumed that all of its executive officers and directors are affiliates.  Such assumption shall not be deemed to be conclusive for any other purpose.


The number of shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding on March 7, 2023 was 12,784,168.


Documents Incorporated by Reference


The following lists the documents which are incorporated by reference in the Annual Report Form 10-K and the Parts and Items of the Form 10-K into which the documents are incorporated.




Part of Form 10-K into which document is incorporated


Portions of the Registrant's Proxy Statement for the

Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held May 25, 2023


Part III - Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14






Form 10-K Index





Item 1.





Item 1A.


Risk Factors



Item 1B.


Unresolved Staff Comments



Item 2.





Item 3.


Legal Proceedings 



Item 4.


Mine Safety Disclosures 





Item 5.


Market for Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities



Item 6.




Item 7.


Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations



Item 7A.


Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk



Item 8.


Financial Statements and Supplementary Data



Item 9.


Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure



Item 9A.


Controls and Procedures



Item 9B.


Other Information



Item 9C.


Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections





Item 10.


Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance



Item 11.


Executive Compensation



Item 12.


Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters



Item 13.


Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence



Item 14.


Principal Accounting Fees and Services





Item 15.


Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules



Item 16.


Form 10-K Summary












Item 1.  Business


Summit Financial Group, Inc. (“Company” or “Summit”) is a$3.92 billion financial holding company headquartered in Moorefield, West Virginia incorporated on March 5, 1987.  We provide community banking services primarily in the Eastern Panhandle, Southern and North Central regions of West Virginia, the Northern, Shenandoah Valley and Southwestern regions of Virginia and the Central region of Kentucky.  We provide these services through our community bank subsidiary, Summit Community Bank (“Summit Community” or “Bank”).  


Community Banking


We provide a wide range of community banking services, including demand, savings and time deposits; commercial, real estate and consumer loans; trust and wealth management services; and cash management services.  The deposits of Summit Community are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC").


In order to compete with other financial service providers, we principally rely upon personal relationships established by our officers, directors and employees with our clients and specialized services tailored to meet our clients’ needs.  We have maintained a strong community orientation by, among other things, supporting the active participation of staff members in local charitable, civic, school, religious and community development activities.  We also have a marketing program that primarily utilizes local radio and newspapers to advertise.  Banking, like most industries, is becoming more dependent on technology as a means of marketing to customers, including the Internet, which we also utilize.  This approach, coupled with continuity of service by the same staff members, enables Summit Community to develop long-term customer relationships, maintain high quality service and respond quickly to customer needs.  We believe that our emphasis on local relationship banking, together with a prudent approach to lending, are important factors in our success and growth.


All operational and support functions that are transparent to clients are centralized in order to achieve consistency and cost efficiencies in the delivery of products and services by each banking office.  The central office provides services such as data processing, deposit operations, accounting, treasury management, loan administration, loan review, compliance, risk management and internal auditing to enhance our delivery of quality service.  We also provide overall direction in the areas of credit policy and administration, strategic planning, marketing, investment portfolio management, human resources administration and other financial and administrative services. The banking offices work closely with us to develop new products and services needed by their customers and to introduce enhancements to existing products and services.




Our primary lending focus is providing commercial loans to local businesses with annual sales generally up to $150 million and providing owner-occupied real estate loans to individuals.  We typically do not seek credit relationships of more than $35 million but will consider larger lending relationships exhibiting above-average credit quality.  Under our commercial banking strategy, we focus on offering a broad line of financial products and services to small and medium-sized businesses through full service banking offices.  Summit Community Bank has senior management with extensive lending experience.  These managers exercise substantial authority over credit and pricing decisions, subject to loan committee approval for larger credits.


We segment our loan portfolio into the following major lending categories: commercial, commercial real estate, construction and land development, residential real estate, consumer and mortgage warehouse lines of credit. Commercial loans are loans made to commercial borrowers that are not secured by real estate. These encompass loans secured by accounts receivable, inventory and equipment, as well as unsecured loans. Commercial real estate loans consist of commercial mortgages, which generally are secured by nonresidential and multi-family residential properties. Commercial real estate loans are made to many of the same customers and carry similar industry risks as the commercial loan portfolio. Construction and development loans are loans made for the purpose of financing construction or development projects. This portfolio includes commercial and residential land development loans, one-to-four family housing construction, both pre-sold and speculative in nature, multi-family housing construction, non-residential building construction and undeveloped land. Residential real estate loans are mortgage loans to consumers and are secured primarily by a first lien deed of trust. These loans are traditional one-to-four family residential mortgages. Also included in this category of loans are second liens on one-to-four family properties, commercial loans secured by one-to-four family residence and home equity loans. Consumer loans are loans that establish consumer credit that is granted for the consumer’s personal use. These loans include automobile loans and recreational vehicle loans, as well as personal secured and unsecured loans. Our mortgage warehouse lines of credit result solely from a participation arrangement with a regional bank to fund residential mortgage warehouse lines of medium- and large-sized mortgage originators located throughout the United States.



Our loan underwriting guidelines and standards are consistent with the prudent banking practices applicable to the relevant exposure and are updated periodically and presented to the Board of Directors for approval. The purpose of these standards and guidelines are:  to grant loans on a sound and collectible basis; to invest available funds in a safe and profitable manner; to serve the legitimate credit needs of our primary market area; and to ensure that all loan applicants receive fair and equal treatment in the lending process. It is the intent of the underwriting guidelines and standards to: minimize losses by carefully investigating the credit history of each applicant; verify the source of repayment and the ability of the applicant to repay; collateralize those loans in which collateral is deemed to be required; exercise care in the documentation of the application, review, approval and origination process; and administer a comprehensive loan collection program.


Our real estate underwriting loan-to-value (“LTV”) policy limits are at or below current bank regulatory guidelines, as follows:



Regulatory LTV Guideline


Summit LTV Policy Limit


Undeveloped land






Land development






Land development - Finished building lots








Commercial, multifamily and other non-residential






1-4 family residential, consumer borrower






1-4 family residential, pre-sold commercial borrower






1-4 family residential, spec, commercial borrower






Improved property:


Residential real estate - nonowner occupied






Commercial real estate - owner occupied






Commercial real estate - nonowner occupied






Owner occupied 1-4 family






Home equity







Exceptions are permitted to these regulatory guidelines as long as such exceptions are identified, monitored and reported to the Board of Directors at least quarterly and the total of such exceptions do not exceed 100% of Summit Community’s total regulatory capital, which totaled $441.2 million as of December 31, 2022.  As of this date, we had loans approximating $86.5 million which exceeded the above regulatory LTV guidelines, as follows:





Undeveloped land

  $ 9.2  

Land development

  $ 4.7  

Land development - Finished building lots

  $ 1.0  



Commercial, multifamily and other non-residential

  $ 14.1  

1-4 family residential, consumer borrower

  $ 0.2  

1-4 family residential, pre-sold, commercial borrower

  $ 0.7  

1-4 family residential, spec, commercial borrower

  $ 0.8  

Improved property:


Residential real estate - nonowner occupied

  $ 6.3  

Commercial real estate - owner occupied

  $ 14.2  

Commercial real estate - nonowner occupied

  $ 14.0  

Owner occupied 1-4 family

  $ 21.0  

Home equity

  $ 0.3  


Our underwriting standards and practice are designed to originate both fixed and variable rate loan products, consistent with the underwriting guidelines discussed above. Adjustable rate and variable rate loans are underwritten, giving consideration both to the loan’s initial rate and to higher assumed rates, commensurate with reasonably anticipated market conditions.  Accordingly, we want to insure that adequate primary repayment capacity exists to address both future increases in interest rates and fluctuations in the underlying cash flows available for repayment.  Historically, we have not offered “payment option ARM” loans.  Further, we have had no loan portfolio products which were specifically designed for “sub-prime” borrowers (defined as consumers with a credit score of less than 599).



Supervision and Regulation




We are subject to regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“FRB”), the West Virginia Division of Financial Institutions, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and other federal and state regulators.  As a financial holding company, we are subject to the restrictions of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (“BHCA”), are registered pursuant to its provisions and are subject to examination by the FRB.  As a financial holding company doing business in West Virginia, we are also subject to regulation by and must submit annual reports to the West Virginia Division of Financial Institutions.


The BHCA prohibits the acquisition by a financial holding company of direct or indirect ownership of more than five percent (5%) of the voting shares of any bank within the United States without prior approval of the FRB. With certain exceptions, a financial holding company is prohibited from acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than five percent (5%) of the voting shares of any company that is not a bank and from engaging directly or indirectly in business unrelated to the business of banking or managing or controlling banks.


The FRB, in its Regulation Y, permits financial holding companies to engage in non-banking activities closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks.  Approval of the FRB is necessary to engage in these activities or to make acquisitions of corporations engaging in these activities as the FRB determines whether these acquisitions or activities are in the public interest. In addition, by order, and on a case by case basis, the FRB may approve other non-banking activities.


The BHCA permits us to purchase or redeem our own securities.  However, Regulation Y provides that prior notice must be given to the FRB if the total consideration for such purchase or consideration, when aggregated with the net consideration paid by us for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding 12 months is equal to ten percent (10%) or more of our consolidated net worth.  Prior notice is not required if (i) both before and immediately after the redemption, the financial holding company is well capitalized; (ii) the financial holding company is well managed and (iii) the financial holding company is not the subject of any unresolved supervisory issues.


In July 2019, the federal bank regulators adopted final rules (the “Capital Simplifications Rules”) that, among other things, eliminated the standalone prior approval requirement in the Basel III Capital Rules for any repurchase of common stock. In certain circumstances, Summit’s repurchases of its common stock may be subject to a prior approval or notice requirement under other regulations, policies or supervisory expectations of the Federal Reserve Board. Any redemption or repurchase of preferred stock or subordinated debt remains subject to the prior approval of the Federal Reserve Board.


The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (the “IRA”) imposes a new 1% excise tax on the fair market value of stock repurchased after December 31, 2022 by publicly traded U.S. corporations. With certain exceptions, the value of stock repurchased is determined net of stock issued in the year, including shares issued pursuant to compensatory arrangements.


The FRB has broad authority to prohibit activities of bank holding companies and their non-banking subsidiaries that represent unsafe and unsound banking practices or which constitute violations of laws or regulations.  The FRB also can assess civil money penalties for certain activities conducted on a knowing and reckless basis, if those activities caused a substantial loss to a depository institution.  The penalties can be as high as $1 million for each day the activity continues.


Summit Community, our only bank subsidiary, is subject to West Virginia banking statutes and regulations, and is primarily regulated by the West Virginia Division of Financial Institutions and the FDIC.  The Bank is also subject to regulations promulgated by the FRB.  As a member of the FDIC, Summit Community’s deposits are insured as required by federal law.  Bank regulatory authorities regularly examine revenues, loans, investments, management practices and other aspects of Summit Community.  These examinations are conducted primarily to protect depositors and not shareholders.  In addition to these regular examinations, the Bank must furnish to regulatory authorities quarterly reports containing full and accurate statements of its affairs.


Because we are a public company, we are subject to regulation by the SEC.  SEC regulations require us to disclose certain types of business and financial data on a regular basis to the SEC and to our shareholders.  We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports with the SEC.  We prepare and file an annual report on Form 10-K with the SEC that contains detailed financial and operating information, as well as a management response to specific questions about our operations.  SEC regulations require that our annual reports to shareholders contain certified financial statements and other specific items such as management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations.  We must also file quarterly reports



with the SEC on Form 10-Q that contain detailed financial and operating information for the prior quarter and we must file current reports on Form 8-K to provide the pubic with information on recent material events.


In addition to periodic reporting to the SEC, we are subject to proxy rules and tender offer rules issued by the SEC.  Our officers, directors and principal shareholders (holding 10% or more of our stock) must also submit reports to the SEC regarding their holdings of our stock and any changes to such holdings and they are subject to short-swing profit liability.  Because we are traded on the NASDAQ, we are also subject to the listing standards of NASDAQ.


Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010


The “Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act” (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), which is complex and broad in scope, established the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (the “CFPB”), which has extensive regulatory and enforcement powers over consumer financial products and services, and the Financial Stability Oversight Council, which has oversight authority for monitoring systemic risk.  We are required to comply with the Consumer Financial Protection Act and the CFPB’s rules; however, these rules are enforced by Summit Community's primary regulator, the FDIC, not the CFPB.  In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act alters the authority and duties of the federal banking and securities regulatory agencies, implements certain corporate governance requirements for all public companies, including financial institutions with regard to executive compensation, proxy access by shareholders and certain whistleblower provisions and restricts certain proprietary trading and hedge fund and private equity activities of banks and their affiliates.  Although the regulations that directly affect our business have been adopted, many of the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act are subject to final rulemaking by the U.S. financial regulatory agencies and the implications of the Dodd-Frank Act for our business will depend to some extent on how such rules are adopted and implemented by the primary U.S. financial regulatory agencies.


Bank Holding Company Activities


In general, the BHC Act limits the business of bank holding companies to banking, managing or controlling banks and other activities that the FRB has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be a proper incident thereto. In addition, bank holding companies that qualify and elect to be financial holding companies may engage in any activity, or acquire and retain the shares of a company engaged in any activity, that is either (i) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity (as determined by the FRB in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury) or (ii) complementary to a financial activity and does not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally (as solely determined by the FRB), without prior approval of the FRB.


Activities that are financial in nature include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and making merchant banking investments. Some examples of non-banking activities which presently may be performed by a financial holding company are: making or acquiring, for its own account or the account of others, loans and other extensions of credit; operating as an industrial bank, or industrial loan company, in the manner authorized by state law; servicing loans and other extensions of credit; performing or carrying on any one or more of the functions or activities that may be performed or carried on by a trust company in the manner authorized by federal or state law; acting as an investment or financial advisor; leasing real or personal property; making equity or debt investments in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare, such as the economic rehabilitation and the development of low income areas; providing bookkeeping services or financially oriented data processing services for the holding company and its subsidiaries; acting as an insurance agent or a broker; acting as an underwriter for credit life insurance, which is directly related to extensions of credit by the financial holding company system; providing courier services for certain financial documents; providing management consulting advice to non-affiliated banks; selling retail money orders having a face value of not more than $1,000, traveler’s checks and U.S. savings bonds; performing appraisals of real estate; arranging commercial real estate equity financing under certain limited circumstances; providing securities brokerage services related to securities credit activities; underwriting and dealing in government obligations and money market instruments; providing foreign exchange advisory and transactional services; and acting, under certain circumstances, as futures commission merchant for non-affiliated persons in the execution and clearance on major commodity exchanges of futures contracts and options.


To maintain financial holding company status, a financial holding company and all of its depository institution subsidiaries must be “well capitalized” and “well managed.” A depository institution subsidiary is considered to be “well capitalized” if it satisfies the requirements for this status discussed in the section captioned “Capital Requirements” included elsewhere in this item. A depository institution subsidiary is considered “well managed” if it received a composite rating and management rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination. A financial holding company’s status will also depend upon it maintaining its status as “well capitalized” and “well managed’ under applicable FRB regulations. If a financial holding company ceases to meet these capital and management requirements, the FRB’s regulations provide that the financial holding company must enter into an agreement with the FRB to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements. Until the financial holding company returns to compliance, the FRB may impose limitations or conditions on the conduct of its activities and the company may not commence any of the broader financial activities permissible for financial holding companies or acquire a company



engaged in such financial activities without prior approval of the FRB. If the company does not return to compliance within 180 days, the FRB may require divestiture of the holding company’s depository institutions. Bank holding companies and banks must also be both well capitalized and well managed in order to acquire banks located outside their home state.


In order for a financial holding company to commence any new activity permitted by the BHC Act or to acquire a company engaged in any new activity permitted by the BHC Act, each insured depository institution subsidiary of the financial holding company must have received a rating of at least “satisfactory” in its most recent examination under the Community Reinvestment Act. See the section captioned “Community Reinvestment Act” included elsewhere in this item.


The FRB has the power to order any bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity or to terminate its ownership or control of any subsidiary when the FRB has reasonable grounds to believe that continuation of such activity or such ownership or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial soundness, safety or stability of any bank subsidiary of the bank holding company.


The Dodd-Frank Act amends the BHC Act to require the federal financial regulatory agencies to adopt rules that prohibit banks and their affiliates from engaging in proprietary trading and investing in and sponsoring certain unregistered investment companies (defined as hedge funds and private equity funds). The statutory provision is commonly called the “Volcker Rule”. In July, 2019, the federal banking agencies adopted a final rule implementing sections of the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act to grant an exclusion from the Volcker Rule for community banks with few than $10 billion in total consolidated assets and total trading assets, as well as liabilities that are equal to or less than five percent of their total consolidated assets. Not only are we now excluded from the Volker Rule due to our asset size, the Volcker Rule has not had a material impact on our operations as we do not generally engage in activities prohibited by the Volcker Rule.


The BHC Act, the Bank Merger Act, the West Virginia Banking Code and other federal and state statutes regulate acquisitions of commercial banks. The BHC Act requires the prior approval of the FRB for the direct or indirect acquisition by a bank holding company of more than 5.0% of the voting shares of a commercial bank or its parent holding company. Under the Bank Merger Act, the prior approval of the FRB or other appropriate bank regulatory authority is required for a member bank to merge with another bank or purchase the assets or assume the deposits of another bank. In reviewing applications seeking approval of merger and acquisition transactions, the bank regulatory authorities will consider, among other things, the competitive effect and public benefits of the transactions, the capital position of the combined organization, the risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system, the applicant’s performance record under the Community Reinvestment Act (see the section captioned “Community Reinvestment Act” included elsewhere in this item) and its compliance with fair lending, fair housing and other consumer protection laws and the effectiveness of the subject organizations in combating money laundering activities.




The principal source of our liquidity is dividends from Summit Community. The prior approval of the Federal Reserve is required if the total of all dividends declared by a state-chartered member bank in any calendar year would exceed the sum of the bank’s net profits for that year and its retained net profits for the preceding two calendar years, less any required transfers to surplus or to fund the retirement of preferred stock. Federal law also prohibits a state-chartered, member bank from paying dividends that would be greater than the bank’s undivided profits. Summit Community is also subject to limitations under West Virginia state law regarding the level of dividends that may be paid.


In addition, the Company and Summit Community are subject to other regulatory policies and requirements relating to the payment of dividends, including requirements to maintain adequate capital above regulatory minimums. The appropriate federal regulatory authority is authorized to determine under certain circumstances relating to the financial condition of a bank holding company or a bank that the payment of dividends would be an unsafe or unsound practice and to prohibit payment thereof. The appropriate federal regulatory authorities have stated that paying dividends that deplete a bank’s capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice and that banking organizations should generally pay dividends only out of current operating earnings.


Credit and Monetary Policies and Related Matters


Summit Community is affected by the fiscal and monetary policies of the federal government and its agencies, including the FRB.  An important function of these policies is to curb inflation and control recessions through control of the supply of money and credit.  The operations of Summit Community are affected by the policies of government regulatory authorities, including the FRB, which regulates money and credit conditions through open-market operations in United States Government and Federal agency securities, adjustments in the discount rate on member bank borrowings and requirements against deposits and regulation of interest rates payable by member banks on time and savings deposits.  These policies have a significant influence



on the growth and distribution of loans, investments and deposits, and interest rates charged on loans, or paid for time and savings deposits, as well as yields on investments.  The FRB has had a significant effect on the operating results of commercial banks in the past and is expected to continue to do so in the future.  Future policies of the FRB and other authorities and their effect on future earnings cannot be predicted.


The FRB has a policy that a financial holding company is expected to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to each of its subsidiary banks and to commit resources to support each such subsidiary bank.  Under the source of strength doctrine, the FRB may require a financial holding company to contribute capital to a troubled subsidiary bank and may charge the financial holding company with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failure to commit resources to such a subsidiary bank.  This capital injection may be required at times when Summit may not have the resources to provide it.  Any capital loans by a holding company to any subsidiary bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of such subsidiary bank.  In addition, the Crime Control Act of 1990 provides that in the event of a financial holding company's bankruptcy, any commitment by such holding company to a Federal bank or thrift regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.


Capital Requirements


The FRB regulates and monitors the capital adequacy of bank holding companies, such as Summit, while the FDIC and the West Virginia Division of Financial Institutions regulate and monitor the capital adequacy of the Bank. Bank regulators use a combination of risk-based guidelines and leverage ratios to evaluate capital adequacy and consider these capital levels when conducting supervisory activities related to bank and bank holding company safety and soundness.


In July 2013, the U.S. federal banking regulators substantially amended the capital rules for banks and bank holding companies to make them generally compliant with the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s Basel III Global Regulatory Framework (the “Basel III Capital Rules”). The Basel III Capital Rules, which were phased in over the period 2015 through 2019, implemented higher minimum capital requirements for bank holding companies and banks. The Basel III rules included a Common Equity Tier 1 capital requirement and established criteria that instruments must meet to be considered Common Equity Tier 1 capital, additional Tier 1 capital or Tier 2 capital. These enhancements were designed to both improve the quality and increase the quantity of capital required to be held by banking organizations, better equipping the U.S. banking system to deal with adverse economic conditions.


The Basel III Capital Rules require banks and bank holding companies to maintain a minimum Common Equity Tier 1 (“CET1”) risk-based capital ratio of 4.5%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6%, a total risk-based capital ratio of 8% and a leverage ratio of 4%. Under the Basel III Capital Rules, banks and bank holding companies must maintain a CET1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.5%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8%, a total risk-based capital ratio of 10% and a leverage ratio of 5% to be deemed “well capitalized” for purposes of certain rules and requirements.


Banks and bank holding companies are also required to maintain a “capital conservation buffer” in excess of the minimum risk-based capital ratios. The buffer is intended to help ensure that banking organizations conserve capital when it is most needed, allowing them to better weather periods of economic stress. The minimum 2.5% buffer is composed solely of CET1 capital. If an institution’s capital conservation buffer is less than or equal to 2.5%, then the institution is subject to limitations on certain activities, including payment of dividends, share repurchases and discretionary bonuses to executive officers.


The Basel III Capital Rules also attempted to improve the quality of capital by implementing changes to the definition of capital. Among the most important changes are stricter eligibility criteria for regulatory capital instruments that disallow the inclusion of certain instruments, such as trust preferred securities, in Tier 1 capital going forward and new constraints on the inclusion of minority interests, mortgage-servicing assets, deferred tax assets and certain investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions. In addition, the Basel III Capital Rules require that most regulatory capital deductions be made from CET1 capital.


The federal bank regulatory agencies may also set higher capital requirements for banks and bank holding companies whose circumstances warrant it. For example, bank holding companies experiencing internal growth or making acquisitions are expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels. Our regulatory capital ratios and those of Summit Community are well in excess of the most restrictive minimum regulatory capital ratios plus the full Capital Conservation Buffer (as applicable) established under the Basel III Capital Rules. Our regulatory capital ratios as of December 31, 2022 are set forth in the table in Note 19 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements beginning on page 105.


The Basel III Capital Rules also set forth changes in the methods of calculating certain risk-weighted assets, which in turn affect the calculation of risk-based capital ratios. Under the Basel III Capital Rules, higher or more sensitive risk weights are assigned



to various categories of assets, including certain credit facilities that finance the acquisition, development or construction of real property, certain exposures or credits that are 90 days past due or on non-accrual, foreign exposures and certain corporate exposures. In addition, the Basel III Capital Rules include (i) alternative standards of credit worthiness consistent with the Dodd-Frank Act, (ii) greater recognition of collateral and guarantees and (iii) revised capital treatment for derivatives and repo-style transactions.


On December 21, 2018, the federal banking agencies issued a joint final rule to revise their regulatory capital rules to: (i) address the implementation of the Current Expected Credit Losses ("CECL") accounting standard under GAAP; and (ii) provide an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one adverse regulatory capital effects that banking organizations experienced upon adopting CECL. We implemented the CECL accounting standard on January 1, 2020, whereby we increased the allowances for loan credit losses and unfunded commitments by $8.89 million and recorded a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings of $6.76 million (net of deferred income taxes of $2.13 million) and elected to recognize the regulatory capital impact of its adoption over the three year period. However, relief provided community banks under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act delayed the start of this three-year phase-in period until January 1, 2022.


Prompt Corrective Action. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 ("FDICIA") establishes a new regulatory scheme, which ties the level of supervisory intervention by bank regulatory authorities primarily to a depository institution's capital category. Among other things, FDICIA authorizes regulatory authorities to take "prompt corrective action" with respect to depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. FDICIA establishes five capital tiers: well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized. The relevant capital measures, which reflect changes under the Basel III Capital Rules, are the total capital ratio, the CET1 capital ratio, the Tier 1 capital ratio and the leverage ratio.


A bank will be (i) “well capitalized” if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or greater, a CET1 capital ratio of 6.5% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater and a leverage ratio of 5.0% or greater and is not subject to any order or written directive by any such regulatory authority to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure; (ii) “adequately capitalized” if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8.0% or greater, a CET1 capital ratio of 4.5% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or greater and a leverage ratio of 4.0% or greater and is not “well capitalized”; (iii) “undercapitalized” if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio that is less than 8.0%, a CET1 capital ratio less than 4.5%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0% or a leverage ratio of less than 4.0%; (iv) “significantly undercapitalized” if the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6.0%, a CET1 capital ratio less than 3.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.0% or a leverage ratio of less than 3.0%; and (v) “critically undercapitalized” if the institution’s tangible equity is equal to or less than 2.0% of average quarterly tangible assets. An institution may be downgraded to, or deemed to be in, a capital category that is lower than indicated by its capital ratios if it is determined to be in an unsafe or unsound condition or if it receives an unsatisfactory examination rating with respect to certain matters. A bank’s capital category is determined solely for the purpose of applying prompt corrective action regulations and the capital category may not constitute an accurate representation of the bank’s overall financial condition or prospects for other purposes.”


Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, a qualifying community banking organization could elect to use the community bank leverage ratio (“CBLR”) framework to eliminate the requirements for calculating and reporting risk-based capital ratios. A qualifying community organization is a depository institution or its holding company that has less than $10 billion in average total consolidated assets; has off-balance-sheet exposures of 25% or less of total consolidated assets; has trading assets plus trading liabilities of 5% or less of total consolidated assets; and is not an advanced approaches banking organization. Qualifying community banking organizations that elect to use the CBLR framework and that maintain a leverage ratio of greater than 9% are considered to have satisfied the risk-based and leverage capital requirements and are considered to have met the well-capitalized ratio requirements for purposes of Section 38 of the FDICIA. A qualifying community banking organization may opt into and out of the CBLR framework by completing the associated reporting requirements on its call report. We presently do not anticipate opting into the CBLR framework.


Community Reinvestment Act


Financial holding companies and their subsidiary banks are also subject to the provisions of the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (“CRA”).  Under the CRA, the FRB (or other appropriate bank regulatory agency) is required, in connection with its examination of a bank, to assess such bank’s record in meeting the credit needs of the communities served by that bank, including low and moderate income neighborhoods.  Further, such assessment is also required of any financial holding company that has applied to (i) charter a national bank, (ii) obtain deposit insurance coverage for a newly chartered institution, (iii) establish a new branch office that will accept deposits, (iv) relocate an office, or (v) merge or consolidate with, or acquire the assets or assume the liabilities of a federally-regulated financial institution.  In the case of a financial holding company applying for approval to acquire a bank or other financial holding company, the FRB will assess the record of each subsidiary of the



applicant financial holding company and such records may be the basis for denying the application or imposing conditions in connection with approval of the application.  


In the most recent CRA examination by the bank regulatory authorities, Summit Community was given a “satisfactory” CRA rating.


The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”), the Federal Reserve Board and the FDIC issued a joint notice of proposed rulemaking on May 5, 2022, proposing revisions to the CRA regulations.  Comments on the proposed rulemaking were due by August 5, 2022.  In September, 2022, legislation was introduced to significantly revise the CRA to add a number of new substantive and procedural requirements.  This legislation may delay the pending proposed rulemaking by the banking regulators. 


Graham-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999


The enactment of the Graham-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (the “GLB Act”) represents a pivotal point in the history of the financial services industry.  The GLB Act swept away large parts of a regulatory framework that had its origins in the Depression Era of the 1930s.  New opportunities were available for banks, other depository institutions, insurance companies and securities firms to enter into combinations that permit a single financial services organization to offer customers a more complete array of financial products and services.  The GLB Act provides a new regulatory framework through the financial holding company, which has as its “umbrella regulator” the FRB.  Functional regulation of the financial holding company’s separately regulated subsidiaries is conducted by their primary functional regulators.  The GLB Act makes a CRA rating of satisfactory or above necessary for insured depository institutions and their financial holding companies to engage in new financial activities.  The GLB Act specifically gives the FRB the authority, by regulation or order, to expand the list of “financial” or “incidental” activities, but requires consultation with the U.S. Treasury Department, and gives the FRB authority to allow a financial holding company to engage in any activity that is “complementary” to a financial activity and does not “pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally.”


Under the GLB Act, all financial institutions are required to adopt privacy policies, restrict the sharing of nonpublic customer data with nonaffiliated parties at the customer’s request and establish procedures and practices to protect customer data from unauthorized access.  We have established policies and procedures to assure our compliance with all privacy provisions of the GLB Act. Pursuant to Title V of the GLB Act, we, like all other financial institutions, are required to:



provide notice to our customers regarding privacy policies and practices,



inform our customers regarding the conditions under which their non-public personal information may be disclosed to non-affiliated third parties and



give our customers an option to prevent certain disclosure of such information to non-affiliated third parties.


Deposit Acquisition Limitation


Under West Virginia banking law, an acquisition or merger is not permitted if the resulting depository institution or its holding company, including its affiliated depository institutions, would assume additional deposits to cause it to control deposits in the State of West Virginia in excess of twenty-five percent (25%) of such total amount of all deposits held by insured depository institutions in West Virginia.  This limitation may be waived by the Commissioner of Banking by showing good cause.


Consumer Laws and Regulations


In addition to the banking laws and regulations discussed above, bank subsidiaries are also subject to certain consumer laws and regulations that are designed to protect consumers in transactions with banks.  Among the more prominent of such laws and regulations are the Truth in Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act and Regulation C, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Right to Financial Privacy Act and the Fair Housing Act.  These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits or making loans to such customers. Bank subsidiaries must comply with the applicable provisions of these consumer protection laws and regulations as part of their ongoing customer relations.


Dodd-Frank centralized responsibility for consumer financial protection by creating the CFPB and giving it responsibility for implementing, examining and enforcing compliance with federal consumer protection laws.  The CFPB has broad rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement authority over consumer financial products and services, including deposit products, residential



mortgages, home-equity loans and credit cards.  The CFPB’s functions include investigating consumer complaints, rulemaking, supervising and examining banks’ consumer transactions and enforcing rules related to consumer financial products and services including mortgage lending and servicing, fair lending requirements, and automotive finance.  Summit Community Bank, as a bank with less than $10 billion in assets, is subject to these federal consumer financial laws, but continues to be examined for compliance by the FDIC, its primary federal banking regulator.


The CFPB has issued final regulations implementing provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act that require all creditors to determine a consumer’s ability to repay a mortgage loan before making a loan.  The final rule, referred to as the Ability-to Repay (ATR)/Qualified Mortgage (QM) standards, provide that a lender making a special type of loan, known as a Qualified Mortgage, is entitled to presume that the loan complies with the ATR safe harbor requirements.  The rule establishes different types of Qualified Mortgages that are generally identified as loans with restrictions on loan features, limits on fees being charged and underwriting requirements.


USA Patriot Act of 2001


The USA Patriot Act of 2001 and its related regulations require insured depository institutions, broker-dealers and certain other financial institutions to have policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing.  The statute and its regulations also provide for information sharing, subject to conditions, between federal law enforcement agencies and financial institutions, as well as among financial institutions, for counter-terrorism purposes.  Federal banking regulators are required, when reviewing bank holding company acquisition and bank merger applications, to take into account the effectiveness of the anti-money laundering activities of the applicants. Summit expects to continue to devote significant resources to its Bank Secrecy Act/anti-money laundering program, particularly as risks persistently emerge and evolve and as regulatory expectations escalate.


Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002


The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“SOA”) addresses, among other issues, corporate governance, auditing and accounting, executive compensation and enhanced and timely disclosure of corporate information.  SOA requires our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer each to certify that Summit’s Quarterly and Annual Reports do not contain any untrue statement of a material fact. The rules have several requirements, including requiring these officers certify that:  they are responsible for establishing, maintaining and regularly evaluating the effectiveness of our internal controls; they have made certain disclosures to our auditors and the audit and compliance committee of the Board of Directors about our internal controls; and they have included information in Summit’s Quarterly and Annual Reports about their evaluation and whether there have been significant changes in our internal controls or in other factors that could significantly affect internal controls subsequent to the evaluation.


Furthermore, in response to the directives of the SOA, NASDAQ adopted substantially expanded corporate governance criteria for the issuers of securities quoted on the NASDAQ Capital Market (the market on which our common stock is listed for trading).  The NASDAQ rules govern, among other things, the enhancement and regulation of corporate disclosure and internal governance of listed companies and of the authority, role and responsibilities of their boards of directors and, in particular, of “independent” members of such boards of directors, in the areas of nominations, corporate governance, compensation and the monitoring of the audit and internal financial control processes.




The federal banking regulators regularly issue new guidance and standards, and update existing guidance and standards, regarding cybersecurity intended to enhance cyber risk management among financial institutions. Financial institutions are expected to comply with such guidance and standards and to accordingly develop appropriate security controls and risk management processes. If we fail to observe such regulatory guidance or standards, we could be subject to various regulatory sanctions, including financial penalties.


In November 2021, the federal banking agencies adopted a Final Rule, with compliance required by May 1, 2022, that requires banking organizations to notify their primary banking regulator within 36 hours of determining that a “computer-security incident” has materially disrupted or degraded, or is reasonably likely to materially disrupt or degrade, the banking organization’s ability to carry out banking operations or deliver banking products and services to a material portion of its customer base, its businesses and operations that would result in material loss, or its operations that would impact the stability of the United States.


In the ordinary course of business, we rely on electronic communications and information systems to conduct our operations and to store sensitive data. We employ an in-depth, layered, defensive approach that leverages people, processes and technology to



manage and maintain cybersecurity controls. We utilize both internal systems and third party consultants to provide the best defense possible. We employ a variety of preventative and detective tools to monitor, block and provide alerts regarding suspicious activity, as well as to report on any suspected advanced persistent threats. Notwithstanding the strength of our defensive measures, the threat from cyber attacks is severe, attacks are sophisticated and increasing in volume and attackers respond rapidly to changes in defensive measures. While to date, we have not experienced a significant compromise, significant data loss or any material financial losses related to cybersecurity attacks, our systems and those of our customers and third-party service providers are under constant threat and it is possible that we could experience a significant event in the future. Risks and exposures related to cybersecurity attacks are expected to remain high for the foreseeable future due to the rapidly evolving nature and sophistication of these threats, as well as due to the expanding use of Internet banking, mobile banking and other technology-based products and services by us and our customers. See Item 1A. Risk Factors for a further discussion of risks related to cybersecurity.


Transactions with Affiliates


Federal law restricts subsidiary banks of a financial holding company from making certain extensions of credit to the parent financial holding company or to any of its subsidiaries; from investing in the holding company stock; and limits the ability of a subsidiary bank to take its parent company stock as collateral for the loans of any borrower. Additionally, federal law prohibits a financial holding company and its subsidiaries from engaging in certain tie-in arrangements in conjunction with the extension of credit or furnishing of services.


There are various statutory and regulatory limitations, including those set forth in sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and the related Federal Reserve Regulation W, governing the extent to which the bank will be able to purchase assets from or securities of or otherwise finance or transfer funds to us or our non-banking affiliates.  Among other restrictions, such transactions between the bank and any one affiliate (including Summit) generally will be limited to ten percent (10%) of the bank’s capital and surplus and transactions between the bank and all affiliates will be limited to twenty percent (20%) of the bank’s capital and surplus.  Furthermore, loans and extensions of credit are required to be secured in specified amounts and are required to be on terms and conditions consistent with safe and sound banking practices.


In addition, any transaction by a bank with an affiliate and any sale of assets or provisions of services to an affiliate generally must be on terms that are substantially the same, or at least as favorable, to the bank as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with non-affiliated companies.


Incentive Compensation


The Federal Reserve Board reviews, as part of its regular, risk-focused examination process, the incentive compensation arrangements of banking organizations, such as Summit, that are not “large, complex banking organizations.” These reviews are tailored to each organization based on the scope and complexity of the organization’s activities and the prevalence of incentive compensation arrangements. The scope and content of the U.S. banking regulators’ policies on incentive compensation are continuing to develop.


The federal bank regulatory agencies issued joint guidance in 2010 on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of such organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. In addition, Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act requires the federal bank regulatory agencies and the SEC to issue regulations or guidelines requiring covered financial institutions, including the Company and Summit Community, to prohibit incentive-based payment arrangements that encourage inappropriate risks by providing compensation that is excessive or that could lead to material financial loss to the institution. A proposed rule was issued in 2016, but this proposed rule has not been finalized. Also, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, in 2015, the SEC proposed rules that would direct stock exchanges to require listed companies to implement clawback policies to recover incentive-based compensation from current or former executive officers in the event of certain financial restatements and would also require companies to disclose their clawback policies and their actions under those policies. The Company continues to evaluate the proposed rules, both of which are subject to further rulemaking procedures.


In October 2022, the SEC adopted a final rule directing national securities exchanges and associations, including NASDAQ, to implement listing standards that require listed companies to adopt policies mandating the recovery or “clawback” of excess incentive-based compensation earned by a current or former executive officer during the three fiscal years preceding the date the listed company is required to prepare an accounting restatement, including to correct an error that would result in a material misstatement if the error were corrected in the current period or left uncorrected in the current period. Under the final rule, Summit is required to adopt a clawback policy within 60 days after such listing standard becomes effective.



Anti-Money Laundering


The Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020 (“AMLA”), which amends the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 (“BSA”), was enacted in January 2021. The AMLA is intended to be a comprehensive reform and modernization to U.S. bank secrecy and anti-money laundering laws. Among other things, it codifies a risk-based approach to anti-money laundering compliance for financial institutions; requires the development of standards for evaluating technology and internal processes for BSA compliance; expands enforcement- and investigation-related authority, including increasing available sanctions for certain BSA violations and instituting BSA whistleblower incentives and protections.




We engage in highly competitive activities. Each activity and market served involves competition with other banks and savings institutions, as well as with non-banking and non-financial enterprises that offer financial products and services that compete directly with our products and services. We actively compete with other banks, mortgage companies and other financial service companies in our efforts to obtain deposits and make loans, in the scope and types of services offered, in interest rates paid on time deposits and charged on loans and in other aspects of banking.


Of particular note, banking laws limit the total amount we can lend to any one borrower generally to 15 percent of Summit Community’s Tier 1 capital plus its allowance for credit losses.  Summit Community evaluated the risks and rewards of lending up to this legal lending limit and established a self-imposed lending limit equal to 85 percent of its legal lending limit. Accordingly, institutions larger than Summit Community have a natural competitive advantage to serve the loan needs of larger clients as their legal lending limits are proportionally greater than ours.


In addition to competing with other banks and mortgage companies, we compete with other financial institutions engaged in the business of making loans or accepting deposits, such as savings and loan associations, credit unions, industrial loan associations, insurance companies, small loan companies, finance companies, real estate investment trusts, certain governmental agencies, credit card organizations and other enterprises.  In addition, competition for money market accounts from securities brokers has also intensified. Additional competition for deposits comes from government and private issues of debt obligations and other investment alternatives for depositors, such as money market funds.  We take an aggressive competitive posture and intend to continue vigorously competing for market share within our service areas by offering competitive rates and terms on both loans and deposits.


Human Capital Resources


At December 31, 2022, we employed 432 full-time equivalent team members. We have acquired five whole banks and eight branches of another bank over the last six years resulting in an overall increase of approximately 209 full-time employees. The average tenure of our full-time employees, including time employed by the banks we acquired is 9.98 years, while the average tenure of our executive management team is approximately 24.74 years. We have 4 employees that have been with the Company more than 40 years; 70 employees that have been with the Company more than 20 years and 233 employees that have been with the Company more than 5 years.


Summit's service commitment to customers is a fundamental value of our company, and is embodied in our ‘Service Beyond Expectations’ culture. We recognize the critical role our employees play in implementing our ‘Service Beyond Expectations’ core strategy. The dedication of our employees resulted in Summit Community’s recognition as the number-one “Best-In-State-Bank” in West Virginia by Forbes in both 2018 and 2022. This award was based on a survey of more than 25,000 customers in the United States for their opinions on their current and former banking relationships.


While our employees are focused on providing ‘Service Beyond Expectations’ to our customers and to the community, Summit’s Board of Directors and management team are focused on providing a workplace where employees feel valued and respected, are supported professionally and personally through on the job training, development programs and health and wellness programs, and are recognized and rewarded based on their individual results and performance and the performance of the Company.


Summit values diversity in our employees, customers, suppliers, marketplace, and community. We believe employing a diverse workforce that is reflective of our customers and the communities that we serve helps us to better identify and deliver ‘Service Beyond Expectations’ to meet our customers’ and communities’ particular financial needs. We are committed to attracting, retaining and promoting our employees regardless of sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, race, color, national origin, age, relation and physical ability. We identify and hire the best candidates for all open positions based on qualifying factors for the position and free from discrimination.



Management reviews and monitors our workforce data provided to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to ensure that we are recruiting, promoting and retaining diverse employees. We dedicate resources to promote a safe and inclusive workplace. Our employees participate in various training courses including a course on sexual harassment and a course on accepting each other’s differences. We believe employing a diverse workforce that is reflective of our customers and the communities that we serve helps us to better identify and deliver ‘Service Beyond Expectations’ to meet our customers’ and communities’ particular financial needs. Consistent with these efforts, 78% of our workforce is gender/racial diverse.


Summit is committed to employee development and retention. We provide professional development opportunities, on the job training and mentoring to all of our employees. We encourage our employees to pursue educational opportunities that will help improve their job skills and performance. Our employees attend training, development and compliance courses offered by the West Virginia Bankers Association, the Community Bankers of West Virginia and the Virginia Bankers Association, and financial and credit risk management courses offered by The Risk Management Association. We also support employees who desire to continue their education in areas that are directly related to their jobs. We reimburse fees for continuing education courses and for certain certifications. We also provide up to $500 per employee in educational assistance annually for those employees who wish to continue their education.


Our compensation and benefits package is designed to attract, motivate and retain employees. In addition to competitive base salaries, the Company provides a variety of short-term, long-term and commission-based incentive compensation programs to reward performance relative to key financial performance of the Company and customer experience metrics. The Company’s long-term compensation program is directly linked to the long-term performance of the Company, its common stock and Summit Community. Summit offers comprehensive health and benefit options to its employees consisting of health, dental, vision, life insurance, disability insurance, paid vacation, paid illness, and holidays. Summit also maintains an Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP) which covers substantially all employees. Under the provisions of the ESOP, employee participants in the ESOP are not permitted to contribute to the ESOP, rather the cost of the ESOP is borne by the Company through annual contributions in amounts determined by the Company’s Board of Directors. Discretionary contributions were made by the Company for 2022 of 6%. As of December 31, 2022, the ESOP owned 4.3% of the Company’s common stock. In addition, the Company has a defined contribution plan with 401(k) provisions covering substantially all employees. Under the provisions of the plan, the Company matches 100% of the participant’s salary reduction contributions, up to 4% of such participant’s compensation. The Company may also make optional contributions at the discretion of the Company’s Board of Directors.


Summit employees actively share their talents in their communities through volunteer activities in education, economic development, human and health services, and community reinvestment. Bank management and personnel serve in leadership positions on several community development organizations that provide affordable housing assistance, economic development, and community services for low- and moderate-income individuals and families. 


Available Information


Our Internet website address is and our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to such filed reports with the SEC are accessible through this website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such reports with the SEC.  The information on our website is not and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this report or incorporated into any other filing with the SEC.


These reports are available at the SEC’s website at that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.



Item 1A.  Risk Factors


We, like other financial holding companies, are subject to a number of risks that may adversely affect our financial condition or results of operation, many of which are outside of our direct control, though efforts are made to manage those risks while optimizing returns. Among the risks assumed are: (i) credit risk, which is the risk of loss due to loan clients or other counterparties not being able to meet their financial obligations under agreed upon terms, (ii) market risk, which is the risk of loss due to changes in the market value of assets and liabilities due to changes in market interest rates, equity prices and credit spreads, (iii) liquidity risk, which is the risk of loss due to the possibility that funds may not be available to satisfy current or future commitments based on external market issues, investor and customer perception of financial strength and events unrelated to the Company such as war, terrorism, or financial institution market specific issues and (iv) operational risk, which is the risk of loss due to human error, inadequate or failed internal systems and controls, violations of, or noncompliance with, laws, rules, regulations, prescribed practices, or ethical standards and external influences such as market conditions, fraudulent activities, disasters and security risks.


In addition to the other information included or incorporated by reference into this report, readers should carefully consider that the following important factors, among others, could materially impact our business, future results of operations and future cash flows.



Changes in interest rates could negatively impact our future earnings.


Changes in interest rates could reduce income and cash flow.  Our income and cash flow depend primarily on the difference between the interest earned on loans and investment securities and the interest paid on deposits and other borrowings.  Interest rates are beyond our control and they fluctuate in response to general economic conditions and the policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies, in particular, the FRB.  Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, will influence loan originations, purchases of investments, volumes of deposits and rates received on loans and investment securities and paid on deposits.  Our results of operations may be adversely affected by increases or decreases in interest rates or by the shape of the yield curve.


We are subject to extensive government regulation and supervision.


The Company and Summit Community are subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision, which vests a significant amount of discretion in the various regulatory authorities. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors and customers, the Federal Deposit Insurance fund and the banking system as a whole, not security holders. These regulations and supervisory guidance affect our lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy and growth, among other things. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. The Dodd-Frank Act instituted major changes to the banking and financial institutions regulatory regimes. Other changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies or supervisory guidance, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations, policies or supervisory guidance, could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could subject us to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products we may offer and/or increase the ability of non-banks to offer competing financial services and products, among other things. Failure to comply with laws, regulations, policies or supervisory guidance could result in enforcement and other legal actions by Federal or state authorities, including criminal and civil penalties, the loss of FDIC insurance, the revocation of a banking charter, other sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties and/or reputation damage. In this regard, government authorities, including the bank regulatory agencies, are pursuing aggressive enforcement actions with respect to compliance and other legal matters involving financial activities, which heightens the risks associated with actual and perceived compliance failures. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.  See the section captioned “Supervision and Regulation” included in Item 1. Business on page 1.


We may become subject to additional regulatory restrictions in the event that our regulatory capital levels decline.


Although the Bank is qualified as “well capitalized” under the regulatory framework for prompt corrective action as of December 31, 2022, there is no guarantee that we will not have a decline in our capital category in the future.  In the event of such a capital category decline, we would be subject to increased regulatory restrictions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and/or future prospects.


If a bank is classified as undercapitalized, the bank is required to submit a capital restoration plan to the FDIC.  Pursuant to FDICIA, an undercapitalized bank is prohibited from increasing its assets, engaging in a new line of business, acquiring any interest in any company or insured depository institution, or opening or acquiring a new branch office, except under certain



circumstances, including the acceptance by the FDIC of a capital restoration plan for the bank. Furthermore, if a state non-member bank is classified as undercapitalized, the FDIC may take certain actions to correct the capital position of the bank; if a bank is classified as significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized, the FDIC would be required to take one or more prompt corrective actions.  These actions would include, among other things, requiring sales of new securities to bolster capital; improvements in management; limits on interest rates paid; prohibitions on transactions with affiliates; termination of certain risky activities and restrictions on compensation paid to executive officers.  If a bank is classified as critically undercapitalized, FDICIA requires the bank to be placed into conservatorship or receivership within ninety (90) days, unless the Federal Reserve determines that other action would better achieve the purposes of FDICIA regarding prompt corrective action with respect to undercapitalized banks.


Under FDICIA, banks may be restricted in their ability to accept brokered deposits, depending on their capital classification. “Well capitalized” banks are permitted to accept brokered deposits, but all banks that are not well capitalized could be restricted from accepting such deposits.  The FDIC may, on a case-by-case basis, permit banks that are adequately capitalized to accept brokered deposits if the FDIC determines that acceptance of such deposits would not constitute an unsafe or unsound banking practice with respect to the bank.  These restrictions could materially and adversely affect our ability to access lower costs funds and thereby decrease our future earnings capacity.


Our financial flexibility could be severely constrained if we are unable to renew our wholesale funding or if adequate financing is not available in the future at acceptable rates of interest.  We may not have sufficient liquidity to continue to fund new loan originations and we may need to liquidate loans or other assets unexpectedly in order to repay obligations as they mature.  Our inability to obtain regulatory consent to accept or renew brokered deposits could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and/or future prospects and our ability to continue as a going concern. Finally, the capital classification of a bank affects the frequency of examinations of the bank, the deposit insurance premiums paid by such bank and the ability of the bank to engage in certain activities, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and/or future prospects.  Under FDICIA, the FDIC is required to conduct a full-scope, on-site examination of every bank at least once every twelve (12) months.  


Our decisions regarding credit risk could be inaccurate and our allowance for credit losses may be inadequate, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and/or future prospects.


Our loan portfolio subjects us to credit risk.  Inherent risks in lending also include fluctuations in collateral values and economic downturns.  Making loans is an essential element of our business and there is a risk that our loans will not be repaid.


We attempt to maintain an appropriate allowance for credit losses to provide for our estimate of all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. As of December 31, 2022, our allowance for credit losses on loans totaled $38.9 million, which represents approximately 1.26% of our total loans.  The determination of the appropriate level of allowance for credit losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and requires us to make significant estimates related to current and expected future credit risks and trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Continuing deterioration in economic conditions affecting borrowers and securities issuers; new information regarding existing loans, credit commitments and securities holdings; natural disasters and risks related to climate change; and identification of additional problem loans, ratings down-grades and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require an increase in the allowances for credit losses on loans, securities and off-balance sheet credit exposures. There is no precise method of predicting credit losses and therefore, we always face the risk that losses in future periods will exceed our allowance for credit losses and that we would need to make additional provisions to our allowance for credit losses. Our methodology for the determination of the adequacy of the allowance for credit losses is set forth in Note 7 of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.


The FDIC and the West Virginia Division of Financial Institutions review our allowance for credit and lease losses and may require us to establish additional allowances.  Additions to the allowance for credit and lease losses will result in a decrease in our net earnings and capital and could hinder our ability to grow our assets.


We may elect or be compelled to seek additional capital in the future, but capital may not be available when it is needed.


We are required by federal and state regulatory authorities to maintain adequate levels of capital to support our operations.  In addition, we may elect to raise additional capital to support our business or to finance acquisitions, if any, or we may otherwise elect to raise additional capital.  Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend on conditions in the capital markets, economic conditions and a number of other factors, many of which are outside our control and on our financial performance.  Accordingly, we cannot be assured of our ability to raise additional capital, if needed or on terms acceptable to us. If we cannot raise additional capital when needed, it may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and prospects.



We rely on funding sources to meet our liquidity needs, such as brokered deposits and FHLB borrowings, which are generally more sensitive to changes in interest rates and can be adversely affected by general economic conditions.


We have frequently utilized, as a source of funds, certificates of deposit obtained through third parties that solicit funds from their customers for deposit with us, or brokered deposits.  Brokered deposits, when compared to retail deposits attracted through a branch network, are generally more sensitive to changes in interest rates and volatility in the capital markets and could reduce our net interest spread and net interest margin.  In addition, brokered deposit funding sources may be more sensitive to significant changes in our financial condition.  As of December 31, 2022, brokered deposits totaled $32.8 million, or approximately 1.0% of our total deposits, compared to brokered deposits in the amount of $14.7 million or approximately 0.5% of our total deposits at December 31, 2021.  Our ability to continue to acquire brokered deposits is subject to our ability to price these deposits at competitive levels, which may increase our funding costs and the confidence of the market.  In addition, if our capital ratios fall below the levels necessary to be considered “well capitalized” under current regulatory guidelines, we could be restricted from using brokered deposits as a funding source.


We also have borrowings with the Federal Home Loan Bank of Pittsburgh, or the FHLB.  As of December 31, 2022, our FHLB borrowings maturing within one year totaled $225.9 million.  If we were unable to borrow from the FHLB in the future, we may be required to seek higher cost funding sources, which could materially and adversely affect our net interest income.


One aspect of our liquidity management process is establishing contingent liquidity funding plans under various scenarios in order to prepare for unexpected liquidity shortages or events.   Page 46 of Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations shows three “stressed” liquidity circumstances and our related contingency plans with respect to each.


We pursue a strategy of supplementing internal growth by acquiring other financial companies or their assets and liabilities that we believe will help us fulfill our strategic objectives and enhance our earnings. There are risks associated with this strategy.


As part of our general growth strategy, we have partially expanded our business through acquisitions. We completed the acquisition of WinFirst Financial Corp. ("WinFirst") on December 14, 2020, Cornerstone Financial Services, Inc. ("Cornerstone") on January 1, 2020, the Peoples Bankshares, Inc. ("Peoples") acquisition on January 1, 2019, the First Century Bankshares, Inc. ("FCB") acquisition in April 2017 and the acquisition of Highland County Bankshares, Inc. ("HCB") in October 2016. We also acquired four branches in the eastern panhandle of West Virginia from MVB Bank, Inc. on April 24, 2020 and four branches and two drive-up banking locations of MVB Bank, Inc., in southern West Virginia on July 12, 2021. On December 9, 2022, we entered into an agreement to acquire PSB Holding Corp. that we expect to close in the second quarter of 2023.  Although our business strategy emphasizes organic expansion, we continue, from time to time in the ordinary course of business, to engage in preliminary discussions with potential acquisition targets. There can be no assurance that, in the future, we will successfully identify suitable acquisition candidates, complete acquisitions and successfully integrate acquired operations into our existing operations or expand into new markets. The consummation of any future acquisitions may dilute shareholder value or may have an adverse effect upon our operating results while the operations of the acquired business are being integrated into our operations. In addition, once integrated, acquired operations may not achieve levels of profitability comparable to those achieved by our existing operations, or otherwise perform as expected. Further, transaction-related expenses may adversely affect our earnings. These adverse effects on our earnings and results of operations may have a negative impact on the value of our common stock. Acquiring banks, bank branches or other businesses involves risks commonly associated with acquisitions, including:



We may be exposed to potential asset quality issues or unknown or contingent liabilities of the banks, businesses, assets, and liabilities we acquire. If these issues or liabilities exceed our estimates, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially negatively affected;



Prices at which acquisitions can be made fluctuate with market conditions. We have experienced times during which acquisitions could not be made in specific markets at prices we considered acceptable and expect that we will experience this condition in the future;



The acquisition of other entities generally requires integration of systems, procedures and personnel of the acquired entity into our company to make the transaction economically successful. This integration process is complicated and time consuming and can also be disruptive to the customers of the acquired business. If the integration process is not conducted successfully and with minimal effect on the acquired business and its customers, we may not realize the anticipated economic benefits of particular acquisitions within the expected time frame, and we may lose customers or employees of the acquired business. We may also experience greater than anticipated customer losses even if the integration process is successful.




To the extent our costs of an acquisition exceed the fair value of the net assets acquired, the acquisition will generate goodwill. As discussed below, we are required to assess our goodwill for impairment at least annually, and any goodwill impairment charge could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition; and



To finance an acquisition, we may borrow funds, thereby increasing our leverage and diminishing our liquidity, or issue additional shares, which could dilute the interests of our existing stockholders.


Acquisitions may be delayed, impeded, or prohibited due to regulatory issues.


Acquisitions by financial institutions, including us, are subject to approval by a variety of federal and state regulatory agencies (collectively, “regulatory approvals”). The process for obtaining these required regulatory approvals has become substantially more difficult since the global financial crisis, and our ability to engage in certain merger or acquisition transactions depends on the bank regulators' views at the time as to our capital levels, quality of management, and overall condition, in addition to their assessment of a variety of other factors, including our compliance with law. Regulatory approvals could be delayed, impeded, restrictively conditioned or denied due to existing or new regulatory issues we have, or may have, with regulatory agencies, including, without limitation, issues related to Bank Secrecy Act compliance, Community Reinvestment Act issues, fair lending laws, fair housing laws, consumer protection laws, unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices regulations and other laws and regulations. We may fail to pursue, evaluate or complete strategic and competitively significant acquisition opportunities as a result of our inability, or perceived or anticipated inability, to obtain regulatory approvals in a timely manner, under reasonable conditions or at all. Difficulties associated with potential acquisitions that may result from these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with lending activities.


A significant portion of our loan portfolio is secured by real property.  During the ordinary course of business, we may foreclose on and take title to properties securing certain loans.  In doing so, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on those properties.  If hazardous or toxic substances are found, we may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage.  Environmental laws may require us to incur substantial expenses and may materially reduce the affected property’s value or limit our ability to use or sell the affected property.  In addition, future laws or more stringent interpretations or enforcement policies with respect to existing laws may increase our exposure to environmental liability.  The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


Certain of our credit exposures are concentrated in industries that may be more susceptible to the long-term risks of climate change, natural disasters or global pandemics. To the extent that these risks may have a negative impact on the financial condition of borrowers, it could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


Uncertainty relating to LIBOR calculation process and potential phasing out of LIBOR may adversely affect us.


The United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority and the administrator of LIBOR have announced that the publication of the most commonly used U.S. dollar London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) settings will cease to be published or cease to be representative after June 30, 2023. The publication of all other LIBOR settings ceased to be published as of December 31, 2021. The bank regulatory agencies indicated that entering into new contracts that use LIBOR as a reference rate after December 31, 2021, would create safety and soundness risks and that they would examine bank practices accordingly. The Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act, enacted in March 2022, provides a statutory framework to replace U.S. dollar LIBOR with a benchmark rate based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) for contracts governed by U.S. law that have no or ineffective fallback, and in December 2022, the Federal Reserve Board adopted related implementing rules.


We discontinued originating LIBOR-based loans prior to December 31, 2021 and are now negotiating loans using SOFR.


There continues to be substantial uncertainty as to the ultimate effects of the LIBOR transition. Since SOFR rates are calculated differently, payments under contracts referencing new rates will differ from those referencing LIBOR, which may lead to increased volatility as compared to LIBOR. The transition has impacted our market risk profiles and required changes to our risk and pricing models, valuation tools, product design and hedging strategies. Furthermore, failure to adequately manage this transition process with our customers could adversely impact our reputation. Although we are currently unable to assess what the ultimate impact of the transition from LIBOR will be, failure to adequately manage the transition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.



The repeal of Federal prohibitions on payment of interest on demand deposits could increase our interest expense as interest rates rise.


All federal prohibitions on the ability of financial institutions to pay interest on demand deposit accounts were repealed as part of the Dodd-Frank Act. We do not yet know what interest rates other institutions may offer as market interest rates begin to increase. Our interest expense will increase and our net interest margin will decrease if we begin offering interest on demand deposits to attract additional customers or maintain current customers, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


Our business may be adversely affected by increasing prevalence of fraud and other financial crimes.


As a financial institution, we are subject to risk of loss due to fraud and other financial crimes. Nationally, reported incidents of fraud and other financial crimes have increased. We believe we have controls in place to detect and prevent such losses but in some cases multi-party collusion or other sophisticated methods of hiding fraud, may not be readily detected or detectable, and could result in losses that affect our financial condition and results of our operations.


Financial crime is not limited to the financial services industry. Our customers could experience fraud in their businesses, which could materially impact their ability to repay their loans, and deposit customers in all financial institutions are constantly and unwittingly solicited by others in fraud schemes that vary from easily detectable and obvious attempts to high-level and very complex international schemes that could drain an account of a significant amount and require detailed financial forensics to unravel. While we have controls in place, contractual agreements with our customers partitioning liability, and insurance to help mitigate the risk, none of these are guarantees that we will not experience a loss, potentially a loss that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, reputation and results of our operations.


Our information systems may experience failure, interruption or breach in security.


In the ordinary course of business, we rely on electronic communications and information systems to conduct our operations and to store sensitive data. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in significant disruption to our operations. Information security breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents may include, but are not limited to, attempts to access information, including customer and company information, malicious code, computer viruses and denial of service attacks that could result in unauthorized access, misuse, loss or destruction of data (including confidential customer information), account takeovers, unavailability of service or other events. These types of threats may derive from human error, fraud or malice on the part of external or internal parties, or may result from accidental technological failure. Further, to access our products and services our customers may use computers and mobile devices that are beyond our security control systems. Our technologies, systems, networks and software and those of other financial institutions have been and are likely to continue to be, the target of cybersecurity threats and attacks, which may range from uncoordinated individual attempts to sophisticated and targeted measures directed at us. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber attack or cyber intrusion, has increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased.


Our business requires the collection and retention of large volumes of customer data, including personally identifiable information in various information systems that we maintain and in those maintained by third parties with whom we contract to provide data services. We also maintain important internal company data such as personally identifiable information about our employees and information relating to our operations. The integrity and protection of that customer and company data is important to us. Our collection of such customer and company data is subject to extensive regulation and oversight.


Our customers and employees have been and will continue to be, targeted by parties using fraudulent e-mails and other communications in attempts to misappropriate passwords, bank account information or other personal information or to introduce viruses or other malware through "Trojan horse" programs to our information systems and/or our customers' computers. Though we endeavor to mitigate these threats through product improvements, use of encryption and authentication technology and customer and employee education, such cyber attacks against us or our merchants and our third party service providers remain a serious issue. The pervasiveness of cybersecurity incidents in general and the risks of cyber crime are complex and continue to evolve. More generally, publicized information concerning security and cyber-related problems could inhibit the use or growth of electronic or web-based applications or solutions as a means of conducting commercial transactions.


Although we make significant efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our information systems and have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because attempted security breaches, particularly cyber attacks and intrusions, or disruptions will occur in the future and because the techniques used in



such attempts are constantly evolving and generally are not recognized until launched against a target and in some cases are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures and thus it is virtually impossible for us to entirely mitigate this risk. While we maintain specific “cyber” insurance coverage, which would apply in the event of various breach scenarios, the amount of coverage may not be adequate in any particular case. Furthermore, because cyber threat scenarios are inherently difficult to predict and can take many forms, some breaches may not be covered under our cyber insurance coverage. A security breach or other significant disruption of our information systems or those related to our customers, merchants and our third party vendors, including as a result of cyber attacks, could (i) disrupt the proper functioning of our networks and systems and therefore our  operations and/or those of certain of our customers; (ii) result in the unauthorized access to and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of ours or our customers; (iii) result in a violation of applicable privacy, data breach and other laws, subjecting us to additional regulatory scrutiny and expose the us to civil litigation, governmental fines and possible financial liability; (iv) require significant management attention and resources to remedy the damages that result; or (v) harm our reputation or cause a decrease in the number of customers that choose to do business with us. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


We are dependent upon third parties for certain information system, data management and processing services and to provide key components of our business infrastructure.


We outsource certain information system and data management and processing functions to third party providers. These third party service providers are sources of operational and informational security risk to us, including risks associated with operational errors, information system interruptions or breaches and unauthorized disclosures of sensitive or confidential client or customer information. If third party service providers encounter any of these issues, or if we have difficulty communicating with them, we could be exposed to disruption of operations, loss of service or connectivity to customers, reputational damage and litigation risk that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or our business.


Third party vendors provide key components of our business infrastructure such as internet connections, network access and core application processing. While we have selected these third party vendors carefully, we do not control their actions.


These services must be available on a continuous and timely basis and be in compliance with any regulatory requirements. Failure to do so could substantially harm our business.


We often purchase services from vendors under agreements that typically can be terminated on a periodic basis. There can be no assurance, however, that vendors will be able to meet their obligations under these agreements or that we will be able to compel them to do so. Risks of relying on vendors include the following:



If an existing agreement expires or a certain service is discontinued by a vendor, then we may not be able to continue to offer our customers the same breadth of products and our operating results would likely suffer unless we are able to find an alternate supply of a similar service.


Agreements we may negotiate in the future may commit us to certain minimum spending obligations. It is possible that we will not be able to create the market demand to meet such obligations.


If market demand for our products increases suddenly, our current vendors might not be able to fulfill our commercial needs, which would require us to seek new arrangements or new sources of supply and may result in substantial delays in meeting market demand.


We may not be able to control or adequately monitor the quality of services we receive from our vendors. Poor quality services could damage our reputation with our customers.


Potential problems with vendors such as those discussed above could have a significant adverse effect on our business, lead to higher costs and damage our reputation with our customers and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


Our business is dependent on technology and our inability to invest in technological improvements may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.


The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services.  In addition to better serving customers, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs.  Our future success depends in part upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience, as well as create additional efficiencies in its operations.  Many of our competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements.  We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in



marketing these products and services to our customers, which may negatively affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.




Our business may be adversely affected by conditions in financial markets and economic conditions generally.


Our business is concentrated in West Virginia, the Northern, Shenandoah Valley and Southwestern regions of Virginia and the central region of Kentucky.  As a result, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows are subject to changes if there are changes in the economic conditions in these areas.  A prolonged period of economic recession or other adverse economic conditions in these areas could have a negative impact on Summit.  A significant decline in general economic conditions nationally, caused by inflation, recession, acts of terrorism, outbreak of hostilities or other international or domestic occurrences, pandemic disease, unemployment, changes in securities markets, declines in the housing market, climate change, a tightening credit environment or other factors could impact these local economic conditions and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


External economic factors, such as changes in monetary policy and inflation and deflation, may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


Our financial condition and results of operations are affected by credit policies of monetary authorities, particularly the FRB. Actions by monetary and fiscal authorities, including the FRB, could lead to inflation, deflation, or other economic phenomena that could adversely affect our financial performance. Inflation has risen sharply since the end of 2021 and throughout 2022 at levels not seen for over 40 years. Inflationary pressures are currently expected to remain elevated throughout 2023. Small to medium-sized businesses may be impacted more during periods of high inflation as they are not able to leverage economics of scale to mitigate cost pressures compared to larger businesses. Consequently, the ability of our business clients to repay their loans may deteriorate, and in some cases this deterioration may occur quickly, which would adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, a prolonged period of inflation could cause wages and other costs to the Company to increase, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Virtually all of our assets and liabilities are monetary in nature. As a result, interest rates tend to have a more significant impact on our performance than general levels of inflation or deflation. Interest rates do not necessarily move in the same direction or by the same magnitude as the prices of goods and services.


The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.


Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships.  We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties and routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, or other institutional firms.  Defaults by financial services institutions and even rumors or questions about a financial institution or the financial services industry in general, have led to market wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or other institutions.  Any such losses could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.


The value of certain investment securities is volatile and future declines or other-than-temporary impairments could have a materially adverse effect on future earnings and regulatory capital.


Volatility in the fair value for certain investment securities, whether caused by changes in market conditions, interest rates, credit risk of the issuer, the expected yield of the security, or actual defaults in the portfolio could result in significant fluctuations in the value of the securities as well as any regulatory rulemaking which could exclude or limit the holdings of certain investment securities. This could have a material adverse impact on our accumulated other comprehensive income and shareholders’ equity depending on the direction of the fluctuations. Furthermore, future downgrades, defaults or prepayments, including the liquidation of the underlying collateral in certain securities, could result in future classifications as other-than-temporarily impaired. This could have a material impact on our future earnings, although the impact on shareholders’ equity will be offset by any amount already included in other comprehensive income for securities that were temporarily impaired.




Our ability to pay dividends is limited.


We are a separate and distinct legal entity from our subsidiaries. We receive substantially all of our revenue from dividends from our subsidiary bank, Summit Community.  These dividends are the principal source of funds to pay dividends on our common stock and interest and principal on our debt.  Various federal and/or state laws and regulations limit the amount of



dividends that Summit Community may pay to Summit.  Also, Summit’s right to participate in a distribution of assets upon a subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization is subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors.  In the event Summit Community is unable to pay dividends to us, we may not be able to service debt, pay obligations or pay dividends on our common stock.  The inability to receive dividends from Summit Community could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


Our stock price can be volatile.


Stock price volatility may make it more difficult for our shareholders to resell their common stock when they want and at prices they find attractive.  Our stock price can fluctuate significantly in response to a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, general market fluctuations, industry factors and general economic and political conditions and events, interest rate changes, credit loss trends, or changes in government regulations.


The trading volume in our common stock is less than that of larger financial services companies.


Although our common stock is listed for trading on the NASDAQ, the trading volume in our common stock is less than that of larger financial services companies. A public trading market having the desired characteristics of depth, liquidity and orderliness depends on the presence in the marketplace of willing buyers and sellers of our common stock at any given time. This presence depends on the individual decisions of investors over which we have no control. Given the lower trading volume of our common stock, significant sales of our common stock, or the expectation of these sales, could cause our stock price to fluctuate.


Our executive officers and directors own shares of our common stock, allowing management to have an impact on our corporate affairs.


As of March 1, 2023, our executive officers and directors beneficially own 13.5% (computed in accordance with Exchange Act Rule 13d-3) of the outstanding shares of our common stock.  Accordingly, these executive officers and directors will be able to impact the outcome of all matters required to be submitted to our shareholders for approval, including decisions relating to the election of directors, the determination of our day-to-day corporate and management policies and other significant corporate transactions.


There may be future sales of additional common stock or preferred stock or other dilution of our equity, which may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.


Our board of directors is authorized to cause us to issue additional classes or series of preferred shares without any action on the part of the shareholders.  The board of directors also has the power, without shareholder approval, to set the terms of any such classes or series of preferred shares that may be issued, including voting rights, dividend rights and preferences over the common stock with respect to dividends or upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our business and other terms.  If we issue preferred shares in the future that have a preference over the common stock with respect to the payment of dividends or upon liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, or if we issue preferred shares with voting rights that dilute the voting power of the common stock, the rights of holders of the common stock or the market price of the common stock could be adversely affected.


The market price of our common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of common stock or preferred stock or similar securities in the market or the perception that such sales could occur. 


Holders of our junior subordinated debentures have rights that are senior to those of our shareholders.


We have three statutory business trusts that were formed for the purpose of issuing mandatorily redeemable securities (the “capital securities”) for which we are obligated to third-party investors and investing the proceeds from the sale of the capital securities in our junior subordinated debentures (the “debentures”).  The debentures held by the trusts are their sole assets.  Our subordinated debentures of these unconsolidated statutory trusts totaled approximately $19.6 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021.


Distributions on the capital securities issued by the trusts are payable quarterly, at the variable interest rates specified in those certain securities.  The capital securities are subject to mandatory redemption, in whole or in part, upon repayment of the debentures.


Payments of the principal and interest on the trust preferred securities of the statutory trusts are conditionally guaranteed by us.  The junior subordinated debentures are senior to our shares of common stock.  As a result, we must make payments on the junior subordinated debentures before any dividends can be paid on our common stock and, in the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution or liquidation, the holders of the junior subordinated debentures must be satisfied before any distributions can be



made on our common stock.  We have the right to defer distributions on the junior subordinated debentures (and the related trust preferred securities) for up to five (5) years, during which time no dividends may be paid on our common stock. 


The capital securities held by our three trust subsidiaries qualify as Tier 1 capital under FRB guidelines.  In accordance with these guidelines, trust preferred securities generally are limited to twenty-five percent (25%) of Tier 1 capital elements, net of goodwill.  The amount of trust preferred securities and certain other elements in excess of the limit can be included in Tier 2 capital.


On September 22, 2020, we issued and sold $30 million in the aggregate principal amount of subordinated notes (the “subordinated notes”) in a private placement. The subordinated notes mature on September 30, 2030 and bear interest at a fixed rate of 5.00% per year, from and including September 22, 2020 to, but excluding, September 30, 2025, payable quarterly in arrears. From and including September 30, 2025 to, but excluding, the maturity date or earlier redemption date, the interest rate will reset quarterly at a variable rate equal to the then current three-month term SOFR, as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, plus 487 basis points, payable quarterly in arrears. As provided in the subordinated notes, the interest rate on the Notes during the applicable floating rate period may be determined based on a rate other than three-month term SOFR.


Prior to the fifth anniversary of the original date of issue, we may redeem the subordinated notes, in whole but not in part, only under certain limited circumstances set forth in the subordinated notes. On or after the fifth anniversary of the original date of issue, we may redeem the subordinated notes, in whole or in part, at our option, on any interest payment date.


Principal and interest on the subordinated notes are subject to acceleration only in limited circumstances in the case of certain bankruptcy and insolvency-related events with respect to Summit Financial Group. The subordinated notes are unsecured, subordinated obligations of Summit Financial Group, are not obligations of, and are not guaranteed by, any subsidiary of Summit Financial Group, and rank junior in right of payment to the Company’s current and future senior indebtedness. The Notes are intended to qualify as Tier 2 capital of the Company for regulatory capital purposes.


On November 16, 2021, we issued and sold $75 million in the aggregate principal amount of subordinated notes (the “subordinated notes”) in a private placement. The subordinated notes mature on December 1, 2031 and bear interest at a fixed rate of 3.25% per year, from and including November 16, 2021 to, but excluding, December 1, 2026, payable quarterly in arrears. From and including December 1, 2026 to, but excluding, the maturity date or earlier redemption date, the subordinated notes will bear an interest at an annual floating rate, reset quarterly, equal to the benchmark rate (which is expected to be the then-current Three-Month Term SOFR), plus 230 basis points, or such other rate as determined pursuant to the indenture, payable quarterly in arrears on March 1, June 1, September 1, and December 1 of each year through December 1, 2031 or earlier redemption date.


Prior to the fifth anniversary of the original date of issue, we may redeem the subordinated notes, in whole but not in part, only under certain limited circumstances set forth in the subordinated notes. On or after the fifth anniversary of the original date of issue, we may redeem the subordinated notes, in whole or in part, at our option, on any interest payment date.


Principal and interest on the subordinated notes are subject to acceleration only in limited circumstances in the case of certain bankruptcy and insolvency-related events with respect to Summit Financial Group. The subordinated notes are unsecured, subordinated obligations of Summit Financial Group, are not obligations of, and are not guaranteed by, any subsidiary of Summit Financial Group, and rank junior in right of payment to the Company’s current and future senior indebtedness. The Notes are intended to qualify as Tier 2 capital of the Company for regulatory capital purposes.


The debentures and subordinated notes are senior to our shares of capital stock. As a result, we must make payments on the debentures and the subordinated notes before any dividends can be paid on our stock and, in the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution or liquidation, the holders of the debentures and the subordinated notes must be satisfied before any distributions can be made on our stock. We have the right to defer distributions on the debentures (and the related trust preferred securities) for up to five years, during which time no dividends may be paid on our stock.                          


In 2022, our total interest payments on the debentures approximated $747,000 and the total interest paid on the subordinated notes was $4.0 million. Based on current rates, our quarterly interest payment obligation on the debentures is approximately $338,000 and on the 2020 subordinated notes is approximately $375,000 and the semi-annual interest payment obligation on the 2021 subordinated notes is approximately $1.2 million.


Provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation could delay or prevent a takeover of us by a third party.


Our amended and restated articles of incorporation could delay, defer or prevent a third party from acquiring us, despite the possible benefit to our shareholders, or could otherwise adversely affect the price of our common stock.  For example, our



amended and restated articles of incorporation contain advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our Board of Directors. We also have a staggered board of directors, which means that only one-third (1/3) of our Board of Directors can be replaced by shareholders at any annual meeting.




The value of our goodwill and other intangible assets may decline.


Goodwill and other intangible assets are subject to a decline, perhaps even significantly, for several reasons including if there is a significant decline in our expected future cash flows, change in the business environment, or a material and sustained decline in the market value of our stock, which may require us to take future charges related to the impairment of that goodwill and other intangible assets in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of our operations.


We operate in a very competitive industry and market.


We face aggressive competition not only from banks, but also from other financial services companies, including finance companies and credit unions and, to a limited degree, from other providers of financial services, such as money market mutual funds, brokerage firms and consumer finance companies.  A number of competitors in our market areas are larger than we are and have substantially greater access to capital and other resources, as well as larger lending limits and branch systems and offer a wider array of banking services.  Many of our non-bank competitors are not subject to the same extensive regulations that govern us.  As a result, these non-bank competitors have advantages over us in providing certain services.  Our profitability depends upon our ability to attract loans and deposits.  There is a risk that aggressive competition could result in our controlling a smaller share of our markets.  A decline in market share could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.


We rely heavily on our management team and the unexpected loss of key officers could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and/or future prospects.


Our success has been and will continue to be greatly influenced by our ability to retain the services of existing senior management and, as we expand, to attract and retain qualified additional senior and middle management.  Our senior executive officers have been instrumental in the development and management of our business.  The loss of the services of any of our senior executive officers could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and/or future prospects.


The negative economic effects caused by inflation, terrorist attacks, including cyber attacks, potential attacks and other destabilizing events, would likely contribute to the deterioration of the quality of our loan portfolio and could reduce our customer base, level of deposits and demand for our financial products, such as loans.


High inflation, natural disasters, acts of terrorism, including cyber attacks, an escalation of hostilities or other international or domestic occurrences and other factors could have a negative impact on the economy of the Mid-Atlantic regions in which we operate.  An additional economic downturn in our markets would likely contribute to the deterioration of the quality of our loan portfolio by impacting the ability of our customers to repay loans, the value of the collateral securing loans and may reduce the level of deposits in our bank and the stability of our deposit funding sources.  An additional economic downturn could also have a significant impact on the demand for our products and services.  The cumulative effect of these matters on our results of operations and financial condition could be adverse and material.


Changes in accounting standards could impact reported earnings.


The accounting standard setting bodies, including the Financial Accounting Standards Board and other regulatory bodies, periodically change the financial accounting and reporting standards affecting the preparation of financial statements.  These changes are not within our control and could materially impact our financial statements.


Our potential inability to integrate companies we may acquire in the future could have a negative effect on our expenses and results of operations.


On occasion, we may engage in a strategic acquisition when we believe there is an opportunity to strengthen and expand our business. To fully benefit from such acquisition, however, we must integrate the administrative, financial, sales, lending, collections and marketing functions of the acquired company.  If we are unable to successfully integrate an acquired company, we may not realize the benefits of the acquisition and our financial results may be negatively affected.  A completed acquisition



may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations, including our capital requirements and the accounting treatment of the acquisition.  Completed acquisitions may also lead to significant unexpected liabilities after the consummation of these acquisitions.


Climate change and related legislative and regulatory initiatives may materially affect our business and results of operations.


The effects of climate change continue to create an alarming level of concern for the state of the global environment. As a result, the global business community has increased its political and social awareness surrounding the issue, and the United States has entered into international agreements in an attempt to reduce global temperatures, such as reentering the Paris Agreement. Further, the U.S. Congress, state legislatures and federal and state regulatory agencies continue to propose numerous initiatives to supplement the global effort to combat climate change. Similar and even more expansive initiatives are expected under the current administration, including potentially increasing supervisory expectations with respect to banks’ risk management practices, accounting for the effects of climate change in stress testing scenarios and systemic risk assessments, revising expectations for credit portfolio concentrations based on climate-related factors and encouraging investment by banks in climate-related initiatives and lending to communities disproportionately impacted by the effects of climate change. The lack of empirical data surrounding the credit and other financial risks posed by climate change render it impossible to predict how specifically climate change may impact our financial condition and results of operations; however, the physical effects of climate change may also directly impact us. Specifically, unpredictable and more frequent weather disasters may adversely impact the value of real property securing the loans in our portfolios. Additionally, if insurance obtained by our borrowers is insufficient to cover any losses sustained to the collateral, or if insurance coverage is otherwise unavailable to our borrowers, the collateral securing our loans may be negatively impacted by climate change, which could impact our financial condition and results of operations. Further, the effects of climate change may negatively impact regional and local economic activity, which could lead to an adverse effect on our customers and impact the communities in which we operate.


Climate change also exposes us to transition risks associated with the transition to a less carbon-dependent economy. Transition risks may result from changes in policies; laws and regulations; technologies; and/or market preferences to address climate change. Such changes could materially, negatively impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and/or our reputation, in addition to having a similar impact on our customers. Ongoing legislative or regulatory uncertainties and changes regarding climate risk management and practices may result in higher regulatory, compliance, credit and reputational risks and costs.




Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments


Not applicable.



Item 2.  Properties


Our principal executive office is located at 300 North Main Street, Moorefield, West Virginia, in a building owned by Summit Community.  Summit Community's operations center is located at 1929 State Route 55, Moorefield, West Virginia in a building that it owns.


Summit Community’s main office and branch locations occupy offices which are either owned or operated under lease arrangements.  At December 31, 2022, Summit Community operated 44 banking offices in three states as follows:



Number of Offices


Office Locations by State








Summit Community Bank


West Virginia

    26       3       29  


    10       4       14  


          1       1  


We believe that the premises occupied by us and our subsidiary generally are well located and suitably equipped to serve as financial services facilities.  See Notes 9 and 10 of our consolidated financial statements beginning on page 94.



Item 3.  Legal Proceedings


Information required by this item is set forth under the caption "Legal Contingencies" in Note 17 of our consolidated financial statements beginning on page 104.



Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures


Not applicable.






Item 5.  Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities


Common Stock Dividend and Market Price Information:  Our stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “SMMF.”  


As of March 1, 2023, there were approximately 1,102 shareholders of record of Summit’s common stock.


Purchases of Summit Equity Securities:  We sponsor a qualified Employee Stock Ownership Plan (“ESOP”), which enables eligible employees to acquire shares of our common stock.  The cost of the ESOP is borne by us through annual contributions to an Employee Stock Ownership Trust in amounts determined by the Board of Directors. The Employee Stock Ownership Trust makes regular purchases of our common stock as excess funds within the plan are available.


In February 2020, the Board of Directors authorized the open market repurchase of up to 750,000 shares of the issued and outstanding shares of Summit's common stock ("February 2020 Repurchase Plan"). The timing and quantity of purchases under this stock repurchase plan are at the discretion of management. The plan may be discontinued, suspended, or restarted at any time at the Company's discretion.


The following table sets forth certain information regarding Summit's purchase of its common stock under the Repurchase Plan for the quarter ended December 31, 2022.




Total Number of Shares Purchased


Average Price Paid per Share


Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs


Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs


October 1, 2022 - October 31, 2022

        $             426,423  

November 1, 2022 - November 30, 2022


December 1, 2022 - December 31, 2022



Performance Graph: Set forth below is a line graph comparing the cumulative total return of Summit's common stock assuming reinvestment of dividends, with that of the NASDAQ Composite Index ("NASDAQ Composite"), and the S&P U.S. SmallCap Banks Index (previously known as the SNL Small Cap U.S. Bank Index) for the five year period ending December 31, 2022.


The cumulative total shareholder return assumes a $100 investment on December 31, 2017 in the common stock of Summit and each index and the cumulative return is measured as of each subsequent fiscal year-end. There is no assurance that Summit's common stock performance will continue in the future with the same or similar trends as depicted in the graph.



For the Year Ended
















Summit Financial Group, Inc.

    100.00       75.02       107.62       91.28       116.70       108.91  

NASDAQ Composite

    100.00       97.16       132.81       192.47       235.15       158.65  

S&P U.S. SmallCap Banks Index

    100.00       83.44       104.69       95.08       132.36       116.69  


The  Stock Performance Graph and related information shall not be deemed soliciting material or to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent that Summit specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.


Item 6.  Reserved



Item 7.  Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations




This annual report contains comments or information that constitute forward looking statements (within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Act of 1995) that are based on current expectations that involve a number of risks and uncertainties.  Words such as “expects”, “anticipates”, “believes”, “estimates” and other similar expressions or future or conditional verbs such as “will”, “should”, “would” and “could” are intended to identify such forward-looking statements.  The Private Securities Litigation Act of 1995 indicates that the disclosure of forward-looking information is desirable for investors and encourages such disclosure by providing a safe harbor for forward-looking statements by us.  In order to comply with the terms of the safe harbor, we note that a variety of factors could cause our actual results and experience to differ materially from the anticipated results or other expectations expressed in those forward-looking statements.


Although we believe the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results may differ materially. Factors that might cause such a difference include:  current and future economic and market conditions, including the effects of declines in housing prices, high unemployment rates, U.S. fiscal debt, budget and tax matters, geopolitical matters, and any slowdown in global economic growth; overall levels of inflation; fiscal and monetary policies of the Federal Reserve; future provisions for credit losses on loans and debt securities; changes in nonperforming assets; changes in interest rates and interest rate relationships; demand for products and services; the degree of competition by traditional and non-traditional competitors; the successful integration of operations of our acquisitions; changes in banking laws and regulations; changes in tax laws; the impact of technological advances; the outcomes of contingencies; trends in customer behavior as well as their ability to repay loans; and changes in the national and local economies. We undertake no obligation to revise these statements following the date of this filing.




We are a $3.92 billion community-based financial services company providing a full range of banking and other financial services to individuals and businesses through our our community bank, Summit Community Bank, Inc., which has a total of 44 banking offices located in West Virginia,Virginia and Kentucky.  We have a trust and wealth management division offering trust services and other non-bank financial products principally within our community bank's market area.




Our primary source of income is net interest income from loans and deposits.  Business volumes tend to be influenced by the overall economic factors including market interest rates, business spending and consumer confidence, as well as competitive conditions within the marketplace.


Key Items in 2022



Our earnings per diluted share increased from $3.47 in 2021 to $4.08 in 2022.



Our return on average equity increased to 15.83% from 14.76% and return on average tangible common equity increased from 19.51% to 21.03%.



2022 net income applicable to common shares was $52.3 million ($4.08 per diluted share) compared to $45.1 million ($3.47 per diluted share) in 2021.



Net interest margin increased 19 basis points in 2022, principally due to a 64 basis point increase in our yield on interest earning assets compared to an increase of 57 basis points in our cost of interest bearing funds.



Net revenues increased $17.0 million, or 13.1 percent during 2022 primarily as result of increased interest income related to loan growth.



We achieved loan growth, excluding mortgage warehouse lines of credit and PPP loans, of 17.1 percent, or $431.7 million during 2022.



Nonperforming assets declined to their lowest level since 2005, representing 0.33 percent of total assets at year end 2022 compared to 0.63 percent at the prior year end.




Cash dividends paid on our common stock in 2022 totaled $0.76 per share compared to $0.70 paid per share in 2021.




The year just concluded represents another significant milestone relative to Summit’s goal to be a consistent growth, high-performing community banking institution. Our solid lending activity and strong core operating performance of the past year offer significant evidence of our progress. In addition, our acquisition strategy continued to present us with significant opportunities for ongoing performance enhancement. Looking forward to 2023, while we could be challenged by a variety of potential economic uncertainties, we anticipate sustaining our recent positive trends with respect to:  revenue growth, loan portfolio growth, a relatively stable net interest margin, low overhead, and stability in overall levels of problem assets.




Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and follow general practices within the financial services industry.  Application of these principles requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the amounts reported in our financial statements and accompanying notes.  These estimates, assumptions and judgments are based on information available as of the date of the financial statements; accordingly, as this information changes, the financial statements could reflect different estimates, assumptions and judgments.  Certain policies inherently have a greater reliance on the use of estimates, assumptions and judgments and as such have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally reported.


Our most significant accounting policies are presented in the notes to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.  These policies, along with the other disclosures presented in the financial statement notes and in this financial review, provide information on how significant assets and liabilities are valued in the financial statements and how those values are determined


Based on the valuation techniques used and the sensitivity of financial statement amounts to the methods, assumptions and estimates underlying those amounts, we have identified the determination of the allowance for credit losses, fair value measurements and accounting for acquired loans to be the accounting areas that require the most subjective or complex judgments and as such could be most subject to revision as new information becomes available.


Allowance for Credit Losses:  The allowance for credit losses represents our estimate of all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Determining the amount of the allowance for credit losses is considered a critical accounting estimate because it requires significant judgment and the use of estimates related to the amount and timing of expected future cash flows on loans individually evaluated, estimated losses on pools of homogeneous loans based on historical loss experience and consideration of current and future economic trends and conditions, all of which may be susceptible to significant change.  The loan portfolio also represents the largest asset type on our consolidated balance sheet.  To the extent forecasted economic conditions change considerably and/or actual outcomes differ from our estimates, additional provisions for credit losses may be required that would negatively impact earnings in future periods.  Note 7 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements describes the methodology used to determine the allowance for credit losses for loans and a discussion of the factors driving changes in the amount of the allowance for credit losses for loans is included in the Asset Quality section of this financial review. Note 17 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements describes our policies and methodology used to calculate the allowance for credit losses for off-balance-sheet credit exposures.


Fair Value Measurements:  Fair value is based upon the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants, including, but not limited to, property held for sale, individually evaluated collateral dependent loans and derivatives. Based on the observability of the inputs used in the valuation techniques, we classify our financial assets and liabilities measured and disclosed at fair value in accordance with a three-level hierarchy (e.g., Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3) . Fair value determination requires that we make a number of significant judgments. In determining the fair value of financial instruments, we use market prices of the same or similar instruments whenever such prices are available. We do not use prices involving distressed sellers in determining fair value. If observable market prices are unavailable or impracticable to obtain, then fair value is estimated using modeling techniques such as discounted cash flow analyses. These modeling techniques incorporate our assessments regarding assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or the liability, including assumptions about the risks inherent in a particular valuation technique and the risk of nonperformance.


Fair value is used on a recurring basis for certain assets and liabilities in which fair value is the primary basis of accounting. Additionally, fair value is used on a non-recurring basis to evaluate assets or liabilities for impairment or for disclosure purposes.



Accounting for Acquired Loans: Loans acquired are initially recorded at their acquisition date fair values. The fair value of the acquired loans are based on the present value of the expected cash flows, including principal, interest and prepayments. Periodic principal and interest cash flows are adjusted for expected losses and prepayments, then discounted to determine the present value and summed to arrive at the estimated fair value. Fair value estimates involve assumptions and judgments as to credit risk, interest rate risk, prepayment risk, liquidity risk, default rates, loss severity, payment speeds, collateral values and discount rate.


Acquired loans are divided into loans with evidence of credit quality deterioration  ("PCD") and loans that do not meet this criteria (acquired performing).


A PCD asset is recorded at the purchase price plus the allowance for credit losses expected at the time of acquisition. Under this method, there is no credit loss expense affecting net income on acquisition. Changes in estimates of expected credit losses after acquisition are recognized as credit loss expense (or reversal of credit loss expense) in subsequent periods as they arise.


An asset is considered a PCD asset if, on the acquisition date, it has experienced a more-than-insignificant deterioration in credit quality since loan origination. FASB did not define the term “more-than-insignificant deterioration in credit quality”. They did however, state that they did not intend for PCD accounting to be limited to financial assets that are considered nonaccrual or impaired under legacy US GAAP; instead, it intended the term to include additional assets that have experienced a more-than-insignificant deterioration in credit quality since loan origination. Therefore the determination of what constitutes a PCD asset is left to management judgement.


Summit Community Bank has determined the following would constitute a “more-than-insignificant deterioration in credit quality”:



Nonaccrual status


Greater than 60 days past due at any time since loan origination


Risk rating of OLEM, Substandard, Doubtful or Loss


We established a materiality limit of $50,000 for evaluating loans for PCD status. Subsequent to the acquisition date of PCD assets, we continue to estimate the amount and timing of cash flows expected to be collected on these acquired loans. Increases in expected cash flows will generally result in a recovery of any previously recorded allowance for credit losses, to the extent applicable. The present value of any decreases in expected cash flows after the acquisition date will generally result in additional provision for expected credit losses, resulting in an increase to the allowance for credit losses.


For acquired performing loans, the difference between the acquisition date fair value and the contractual amounts due at the acquisition date represents the fair value adjustment. Fair value adjustments may be discounts (or premiums) to a loan’s cost basis and are accreted (or amortized) to interest income over the loan’s remaining life using the level yield method. A purchased financial asset that does not qualify as a PCD asset is accounted for similar to an originated financial asset. Generally, this means that an entity recognizes the allowance for credit losses for non-PCD assets through net income at acquisition. These purchased performing loans are accounted for through our CECL methodology as basically we would a new origination. Therefore, accounting for purchased performing acquired loans results in the bank recognizing a fair value adjustment to the loan at acquisition and also establishing a provision for excepted credit losses as in the same manner of an originated asset.


See Note 3 and Note 7 of the accompanying consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our acquired loans.




We prepare our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP and also present certain non-GAAP financial measures that exclude certain items or otherwise include components that differ from the most directly comparable measures calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Non-GAAP measures are provided as additional useful information to assess our financial condition and results of operations (including period-to-period operating performance). These non-GAAP measures are not intended as a substitute for GAAP financial measures and may not be defined or calculated the same way as non-GAAP measures with similar names used by other companies. For more information, including the reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to their corresponding GAAP financial measures, see the respective sections where the measures are presented.





Earnings Summary


Net income applicable to common shares increased 15.9% during 2022 to $52.3 million, compared to $45.1 million in 2021 and $31.3 million in 2020. Net income applicable to common shares was $4.08, $3.47 and $2.41 per diluted share for 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, representing a 17.6% increase in 2022 and a 44.0% increase in 2021. Return on average equity was 15.83% in 2022 compared to 14.76% in 2021 and 11.80% in 2020. Return on average assets for the year ended December 31, 2022 was 1.42% compared to 1.36% in 2021 and 1.13% in 2020.


2022 net income applicable to common shares was positively impacted by higher net interest income of $19.1 million (or $1.49 per diluted share), $1.5 million (or $0.12 per diluted share) lower net foreclosed properties expenses and $1.1 million (or $0.09 per diluted share) fewer acquisition related expenses. Partially offsetting these positive impacts were $708,000 (or $0.06 per diluted share) realized securities losses, $6.1 million (or $0.47 per diluted share) higher salaries and employee benefits and $2.5 million (or $0.20 per diluted share) decreased mortgage origination revenue.


2021 net income was positively impacted by higher net interest income of $14.5 million (or $1.11 per diluted share) and $10.5 million (or $0.81 per diluted share) lower provision for credit losses.  Partially offsetting these positive impacts were $3.0 million (or $0.23 per diluted share) fewer realized securities gains, $3.1 million (or $0.24 per diluted share) higher salaries and employee benefits and $1.3 million (or $0.10 per diluted share) increased other noninterest expense.


2020 net income was positively impacted by higher net interest income of $18.4 million (or $1.42 per diluted share), $1.5 million (or $0.12 per diluted share) higher realized securities gains and a $2.0 million increase (or $0.16 per diluted share) in mortgage origination revenue. The $13.0 million increase in provision for credit losses (or $1.00 per diluted share), lower insurance commission revenue of $1.7 million (or $0.13 per diluted share) as result of the sale of our former insurance subsidiary during 2019 (which generated a 2019 gain of $1.9 million pre-tax, or $0.15 per diluted share) and higher salaries and employee benefits of $3.1 million (or $0.24 per diluted share) partially offset these positive impacts.


Net Interest Income


The major component of our net earnings is net interest income, which is the excess of interest earned on earning assets over the interest expense incurred on interest bearing sources of funds.  Net interest income is affected by changes in volume, resulting from growth and alterations of the balance sheet's composition, fluctuations in interest rates and maturities of sources and uses of funds.  We seek to maximize net interest income through management of our balance sheet components.  This is accomplished by determining the optimal product mix with respect to yields on assets and costs of funds in light of projected economic conditions, while maintaining portfolio risk at an acceptable level.


The Federal Reserve influences the general market rates of interest, including the deposit and loan rates offered by many financial institutions. Our loan portfolio is significantly affected by changes in the target Federal funds rate set by the Federal Open Market Committee of the Federal Reserve. As of December 31, 2022, approximately 31.3% of our loans had a fixed interest rate, while approximately 33.5% had adjustable rates and approximately 35.2% had floating interest rates. Our adjustable rate loans typically reprice every 1 to 5 years at rates tied to FHLB advance rate of the same term as each adjustable rate loan’s repricing period. Our floating rate loans reprice at periods ranging from daily to quarterly at rates primarily tied to or derived from the prime interest rate, the Secured Overnight Financing Rates ("SOFR") or the London Interbank Offered Rates ("LIBOR"). We discontinued originating LIBOR-based loans effective December 31, 2021 and have begun to negotiate loans using our preferred replacement index, a benchmark derived based upon SOFR. For our currently outstanding LIBOR-based loans, the timing and manner in which each customer's contract transitions from LIBOR to another rate will vary on a case-by-case basis. Our goal is to complete all transitions by the end of first quarter of 2023.


Select average market rates for the periods indicated are presented in the table below.









Federal funds -- high target

    1.87 %     0.25 %     0.54 %

Interest on reserve balances

    1.76       0.13       0.39  


    4.86       3.25       3.54  

1-Month LIBOR

    1.91       0.10       0.52  

3-Month LIBOR

    2.39       0.16       0.65  

1-Month Term SOFR (1)

    1.86       0.04       0.35  

3-Month Term SOFR (1)

    2.18       0.05       0.34  



(1) 1-Month Term SOFR and 3-Month Term SOFR market data are the property of Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Inc. or its licensors as applicable. All rights reserved, or otherwise licensed by Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Inc.


As of December 31, 2022, the target range for the federal funds rate was 4.25% to 4.50%. In December 2022, the Federal Reserve released projections whereby the midpoint of the projected appropriate target range for the federal funds rate would rise to 5.1% by the end of 2023 and subsequently decrease to 4.1% by the end of 2024. While there can be no such assurance that any increases and decreases in the Federal funds rate will occur, these projections imply up to a 75 basis point increase in the Federal funds rate during 2023, followed by a 100 basis point decrease in 2024. The target rate for the Federal funds rate was increased 25 basis points from 4.50% to 4.75% effective February 2, 2023.


See Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk elsewhere in this report for information about our sensitivity to interest rates. Further analysis of the components of our net interest margin is presented below.


Net interest income on a fully tax equivalent basis, average balance sheet amounts and corresponding average yields on interest earning assets and costs of interest bearing liabilities for the years 2018 through 2022 are presented in Table I.  Table II presents, for the periods indicated, the changes in interest income and expense attributable to (a) changes in volume (changes in volume multiplied by prior period rate) and (b) changes in rate (change in rate multiplied by prior period volume).  Changes in interest income and expense attributable to both rate and volume have been allocated between the factors in proportion to the relationship of the absolute dollar amounts of the change in each.


Net interest income on a fully tax equivalent basis totaled $130.3 million, $111.0 million and $96.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, representing an increase of 17.4% in 2022 and 15.0% in 2021.  During 2022, 2021 and 2020, the volumes of both interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities increased.


During 2022, our earnings on interest earning assets increased $36.6 primarily million due to higher volumes while the cost of interest bearing liabilities increased $17.3 million primarily due to higher cost of funds.


During 2021, our earnings on interest earning assets increased $7.5 million due to higher volumes while the cost of interest bearing liabilities decreased $7.0 million due to lower cost of funds.


During 2020, our earnings on interest earning assets increased $8.03 million due to higher volumes while the cost of interest bearing liabilities decreased $10.5 million due to lower cost of funds.


Total average earning assets increased 11.4% to $3.49 billion for 2022 from $3.13 billion in 2021.  Total average interest bearing liabilities increased 12.0% to $2.78 billion at December 31, 2022, compared to $2.49 billion at December 31, 2021. 


Our net interest margin was 3.73% for 2022 compared to 3.54% and 3.71% for 2021 and 2020, respectively.  Our net interest margin increased 19 basis points during 2022 due to higher volumes of interest earning assets. Our net interest margin decreased 17 basis points during 2021 due to higher volumes of interest earning assets and lower cost of interest bearing funds.


See the “Market Risk Management” section for discussion of the impact changes in market interest rates could have on us.  Further analysis of our yields on interest earning assets and interest bearing liabilities are presented in Tables I and II below.



Table I - Average Balance Sheet and Net Interest Income Analysis


Interest Earnings & Expenses and Average Yields/Rates


Dollars in thousands